Organ transplantation requires powerful drugs to prevent rejection. To address this the team aims to develop accurate tests that can determine when rejection is present and when it is not, so that patients can be managed more effectively with fewer side effects. The new technology of microarrays – gene chips – may be the solution. The goals of this project include: (1) develop a “microarray” or gene chip as tests to detect and measure rejection mechanisms precisely, and (2) validate these tests “in the field” in a large-scale international clinical study. This initiative establishes Canadian leadership in these new fields of microarrays (genomics) and bioinformatics, as well as in the field of organ transplantation. The potential benefits to Canadians resulting from this initiative include improved health for organ transplant recipients, opportunities for investment and patents, and extension of this powerful technology to other health problems involving organ diseases.